Event-driven specs

Last week I continued working on the back-end API server for Getting Things Done task-manager.


Specification micro-framework seems to be stable now. I wrote it from scratch, while bearing in mind the limitations and issues we discovered in previous event-driven project.

That is how single API use-case looks like:

func given_unchecked_task_when_check_then_event() *env.UseCase {

    taskId := lang.NewTaskId()

    return &env.UseCase{
        Name: "Given new task, when PUT /task with check, then event",
        Given: spec.Events(
            lang.NewTaskAdded(newEventId(), taskId, "ho-ho"),
        When: spec.PutJSON("/task", seq.Map{
            "checked": true,
            "taskId": taskId,
        ThenResponse: spec.ReturnJSON(seq.Map{
            "taskId": taskId,
            "name": "ho-ho",
            "checked": true,
        ThenEvents: spec.Events(
            lang.NewTaskChecked(IgnoreEventId, taskId),
        Where: spec.Where{IgnoreEventId: "ignore"},

Such use-cases focus on a single specific task: they describe behavior of a module in a declarative way via its public contract:

  • consumed and published events;
  • RPC API requests and responses.

As such, these are not exactly unit-tests or integration tests. They have some nice properties when applied with the event-driven design process. I'll talk about that later.

Partial Responses

While implementing use-case library, the trickiest part was to figure out how to test only partial responses.

For example, an API call might be returning a large task object, however in a specific use-case only three specific fields would be relevant. We would want to test them and ignore the rest of the object.

At this point I solved the problem by constructing response objects from maps by hand and comparing them with the actual response.

ThenResponse: spec.ReturnJSON(seq.Map{
    "taskId": taskId,
    "name": "ho-ho",
    "checked": true,

The same approach applies to events that we expect and actually get.

Verifying Use-Cases

Verifying behavior of an application in a clear and non-fragile way - is the primary field of application for these use-cases. I implemented a simple verification utility, which plugs into the unit-testing pipeline of Go. It runs all tests, printing a detailed information for each failure.

✗ Given new task, when PUT /task with check, then event

1. TaskAdded {
  "eventId": "13bcdee63b9888cb0000000300886534",
  "taskId": "13bcdee63b9887dc0000000200886534",
  "name": "ho-ho"
When_request: PUT /task
Expect_HTTP: 200 {
  "checked": true,
  "name": "ho-ho",
  "starred": false,
  "taskId": "13bcdee63b9887dc0000000200886534"
Actual_HTTP: 500 {
  "error": "Not implemented"
Expect_Events: 1
0. TaskChecked {
  "eventId": "",
  "taskId": "13bcdee63b9887dc0000000200886534"

Manually comparing expected and actual responses can be counter-productive. It might be better to work with a clear list of issues, fixing them one by one. Use-case verifier now does exactly that:

1. Expected 'Body.checked' to be 'true' but got 'nothing'
2. Expected 'Body.name' to be 'ho-ho' but got 'nothing'
3. Expected 'Body.starred' to be 'false' but got 'nothing'
4. Expected 'Body.taskId' to be '13bcdee63b9887dc0000000200886534' but got 'nothing'
5. Expected 'Status' to be '200' but got '500'
6. Expected 'Events.length' to be '1' but got '0'
7. Expected 'Events[0].$contract' to be 'TaskChecked' but got 'nothing'
8. Expected 'Events[0].taskId' to be '13bcdee63b9887dc0000000200886534' but got 'nothing'


Golang compiler can build sources and run tests in milliseconds. The rest of tooling is comparably fast as well. We could even perform all these operations almost instantaneously:

  • reformat code
  • save file
  • perform static code analysis for common issues
  • build
  • run unit tests and verify use-cases

In fact, I configured F2 to perform all these operations in sequence on single a key-press. This makes the process of implementing API logic rather simple:

  1. Pick the next issue in the Issues_to_fix list.
  2. Type a few lines of code.
  3. Hit F2.
  4. Verify that the issue is gone, then go to 1.

Next Steps

This API back-end is going to provide persistence and scalability to Flux/React.JS front-end, which I'm building in parallel (currently front-end uses in-memory storage). So my next steps would be:

  1. Implement all API features needed to wire front-end to back-end.
  2. Implement Projects and Contexts.
  3. Add some persistence to the back-end.

- by .